P-RO Reverse Osmosis System
P-RO RO Systems is a Drinking Water System that uses the principle of reverse osmosis to remove 95-99% of all the mineral and chemical contaminants from raw tap water. P-RO products gives you the quality of bottled water with the convenience of a faucet mounted on your kitchen sink. You’ll Love Your Water!
Water filters use a screen to separate only particles of dirt sediment from water. Reverse osmosis employs a semipermeable membrane that removes not only particles but also an extremely high percentage of dissolved contaminants from tap water.
The membrane (the P-RO vessel) consists of several thin layers or sheets of film that are bonded together and rolled in a spiral configuration around a plastic tub. The material of the membrane is semipermeable : it allows water molecules pass through while acting as a barrier to dissolved solids (i.e.: mineral chemical contaminants). When the feed water stream passes across the surface of the membrane, the P-RO molecules penetrate the membrane surface, working their way around the spiral and collecting in the center tube. The remaining contaminants are concentrated and washed from the surface of the membrane down the drain.
Assume a membrane is semipermeable, allowing water to pass through while being closed to dissolved salts. Place a membrane between two compartments in a container. Then place a salt solution in one half of the container and pure water in the other half. Now a law of attraction happens. That is, two different concentrations of liquids within the same system will try to reach equilibrium (i.e. the same concentration of contaminants) on both sides of the membrane. Of course the only way for this to happen is for pure water to pass through the membrane to the salt water side in an attempt to reach equilibrium is called OSMOSIS.
Reverse Osmosis is the reversal of the natural flow of osmosis. In a water purification system, the goal is not to dilute the salt solution, but to separate the pure water from the salt and other contaminants. When the natural osmotic flow is reversed, water from the salt solution is forced through the membrane in the opposite direction by application of pressure – hence the term Reverse Osmosis. Through this process, we are able to produce pure water by screening out salts and other contaminants.
The tap water first flows through a 20 micron particle FILTER to remove dirt, rust and other sediment. The water then flows into a carbon cartridge FILTER which takes out 98% of the chlorine and organic chemicals. The next stage of the process is FILTER 1 micron sediment filter or the Block carbon filter to filter multi-chemical compounds and suspension. The reverse osmosis membrane which will separate 95-99% of the dissolved contaminants from the water molecules. The contaminants are then washed down the drain. The next stage of the P-RO RO SYSTEMS process is the small CARBON FILTER removes the remaining traces of chemicals, tastes and odors.
The Reverse Osmosis water is stored in a 3.2 gallons tank. Inside the tank is a balloon-like rubber diaphragm, pre-charged with 8-10 psi of air. As the tank fills, the air pressure increases and pushes the water out when the faucet is opened. The final element of the P-RO system is a chrome faucet. It is installed on the kitchen counter or the sink. It is a dual action faucet offering intermittent flow (to fill a glass, hold the handle down) or continuous flow (to fill a coffee pot, lift the handle up).
Although the idea of reversing osmosis has been known for over 40 years, the practical application only began recently. In 1962 the U.S Government funded the first Reverse Osmosis plant which processed 1000 gallons clean water per day. Today, there are more than 3000 large R.O. treatment plants, each producing more than a million gallons of drinking water each day. In 1991, the U.S. Army bought
8, 000 large membranes to their mobile water purification units for troops in Desert Storm. In 1993, the U.S. Government bought another 6, 300 large membranes to purify flood water in the Midwest.
Yes. Reverse Osmosis was originally designed to make sea water drinkable for the navy. It is ideal for anyone on a low sodium diet.
Yes. A Reverse Osmosis membrane has a pore size much smaller than bacteria virus, pyrogen or the cryptosporidium parasite. When functioning properly it will remove all microorganisms from tap water and produce sterile water.
REALLY GOOD! Generally the taste of the P-RO water depends on the amount of contaminants in the tap water originally. If 95% of dissolved minerals and chemicals are removed, the Reverse Osmosis water may taste like distilled water (no minerals), bottled water (low mineral), or natural spring water (moderate mineral content).
The P-RO System is usually installed underneath the kitchen sink.
It only takes a 1/4″ tee and tubing to run the water to a refrigerator or an extra faucet. Some families run P-RO system to all of their bathrooms.
1. PRESSURE. The greater the water pressure, the better the quantity and quality of the water produced. Water pressure of 60 psi ideal. P-RO can include a booster pump to ensure adequate water pressure.
2. TEMPERATURE. 76*F is the ideal water temperature for Reverse Osmosis 40*F water will cause the production of R.O. water to fall to half of that at 76*F. The maximum water temperature recommended is 85*F.
3. TOTAL DISSOLVED SOLIDS (TDS). The higher the amount of dissolved contaminants in the water, the lower the quantity of water produced. A high level of TOTAL DISSOLVED SOLIDS can be overcome with additional water pressure.
4. MEMBRANE. Different membranes have different characteristics. Some produce more water than others; some have better contaminant rejection capabilities; some have greater resistance to chemical abrasion for longer life. P-RO system comes with 40 GDP (151.4 LPD) The thin film membranes combine the best of these characteristics and are considered the finest membrane in the world.
Under ideal conditions, the 40 GDP (151.4 LPD) thin film membrane is rated at 40 gallons of production per day (80gpd at 80~100psi). Under the average conditions, the consumer can expect 20 gallons of product water per day. But that’s still a lot of water for the average household’s drinking and cooking requirements.
Yes. There are a few ways: 1. At night, fill a pitcher with water from the tank. The emptier the tank the faster the water production. By morning the tank will be filled with fresh water. 2. A second storage tank can be added. An additional tank is required to double the capacity of the P-RO System.
Yes. The P-RO System (excluding filters) is guaranteed for one year for material and workmanship. All defective parts will be replaced free within the first year. The membrane has a one year pro-rated guarantee.
The P-RO vessel, and P-RO polisher should be changed once a year.
The P-RO System contains a quality carbon filter which will remove more than 98% of organic chemicals from the water. These include THMs(chloroform), DBCP, lindane, TCEs(trichloroethylene), PCEs(tetrachloroethylene), carbon tetrachloride chlorine, In addition to these organic chemicals, below is a partial list of other contaminants removed by the 40 GDP (151.4 LPD) thin film membrane. The percentage of removal shown below is a conservative estimate.
Precision RO FAQ’s
TYPICAL THIN FILM COMPOSITE(TFC) MEMBRANE REJECTION RATE*
|Material/Element||% Removed||Material/Element||% Removed|
|Total Dissol Solids||95%|